Vehicle for Imagination: Art and Mobility Technology in South Korea

Seoul LiDARs. Three-channel video documentation of the artwork Volumetric Data Collector (2018).
Melanie Wilmink explores how a Seoul-based residency created by the car company Hyundai has enabled artists to interrogate the ways automobile technologies are impacting human engagement with urban environments.
[Ed. Note: This article is part of a dossier on Mediating Urban Automobility.]

There is a section of the Gardiner Expressway in downtown Toronto, Canada, where driving feels like flying. The pavement lifts up into the sky so that other roads can pass underneath, and my vehicle speeds alongside a canyon of condominium towers. In this moment my perception of the city changes. Instead of a human ground-level perspective, my vision is now closer to a kind of mechanical or cinematic vision—a Blade Runner (1982) cityscape of slick glass surfaces, silhouetted apartment windows, fragmented billboards, and incomprehensible scope. That moment of pleasure and awe highlights how much the automobile and its attendant infrastructure have shaped our physical surroundings as well as how we see and make sense of the world. The metal container of the car offers supernatural strength, speed, and protection, yet it also dissociates its passengers from the environment by moving on a set path at speeds that make it difficult to react quickly to minor perceptual inputs. The vehicle mediates an experience, in much the same way as cinema or video games, where vision is framed and directed, narrowed to a sequence of action, and agency is somewhat limited by the infrastructure (roads, signs, seats, screens, controllers, and buttons). Vehicles and media similarly transport us through time, space, and emotional experiences—a synchronicity that makes media art an ideal form to explore automotive perception and the ways new mobility tools will continue to change human engagement with urban environments.

In South Korea, artists are interrogating the ways that emerging automobile technologies impact the human sensorium, culture, and relationship to urban environments. Like many wealthy nations, personal vehicles are an important possession for city dwellers, particularly since South Korea is home to some of the world’s largest car manufacturers (Hyundai, KIA) and technology firms (Samsung, LG), all of which have invested heavily in “smart” innovations. Korean citizens possess high levels of digital literacy, and artists have unique access to cutting-edge tools through corporate and government support. This article demonstrates the ways that an artist residency created by the car company Hyundai has enabled South Korean artists to explore the societal and material impacts of automobility. By using automotive sensors, solo artist Hoonida Kim (후니다 킴) pushes the boundaries of human perception. Similarly, temporary collaborators Seoul LiDARs (서울 라이다즈), comprised of Sookyun Yang  (양숙현), Jinoon Choi (최진훈), and Hyun Parke (현박), highlight the performance of collecting urban data. Finally, the collective IVAAIU City—whose members include Donguk Agos Lee (이동욱), Yangho Shin (신양호), Sung-Su Park (박성수), Hancheol So (소한철) & Hiroto Takeuchi (竹内洋人)—turn their attention towards future forms of mobility infrastructure.

In 2018, Hyundai Motor Group launched Zer01ne, a Seoul-based multi-disciplinary research lab that aims to create innovation through conversations between artists, tech start-up groups, business entrepreneurs, and Hyundai staff. The program hosts two streams: Accelerator, which supports startup incubation and commercialization, and Playground, an interdisciplinary residency for creative production. Of particular interest here is the six-month Playground residency, which offers participants and select alumni mentors access to workspace, technology, group discussions, and networking to shape projects that are publicly displayed at the Zer01ne Day exhibition each fall. The projects are often themed around key areas of research pertinent to Hyundai, including automotive technology and new forms of urban mobility.1See Hyundai Motor Group, “Hyundai Motor Group Recruiting Startups for 2023 ZER01NE Accelerator First-Half Open Call,” Press Release (Seoul: Hyundai Motor Group, February 21, 2023). Participants are selected based on solo or group proposals and are also encouraged to collaborate with other residents. Outcomes include the annual exhibition, but Zer01ne also supports patenting and other commercialization activities. All of this means that artists who participate in the residency have access to cutting edge technological tools and human knowledge resources to push the boundaries and application of their practice, but projects are generally framed within the vision and commercial goals of the parent company. The structure of the residency mediates artistic approaches and interests, leading to a significant group of Korean artists who have participated in the residency and who subsequently continue to explore technologies of mobility and urban infrastructure. These artists leverage the spectacular nature of media art and urban technology to investigate how new devices impact human perception and interaction with the cityscape. This often means deconstructing the automobile into its component parts in order to slow or interrupt habitual engagement with the vehicle while emphasizing a relational interplay between humans, technology, and urban environments. They take up mobility tools that rely on invisible layers of data, and use artworks to reveal the virtual processes and potentials that surround us, normally invisible to human perception. If, in my earlier example, the traditional automobile enables a cinematic vision, here with the integration of self-driving cars and other digital systems, the automobile begins to reveal a kind of algorithmic or computational sense of the surrounding world.

Since participating in Zer01ne as part of the first cohort in 2018, Hoonida Kim has been developing interactive performance-based artworks that explore machine vision as a prosthetic for human sensory perception. Through his residency, he became interested in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technologies that measure space through reflected light and are one of the key navigation tools for autonomous vehicles. He has iterated the play between LiDAR and perception through several different projects, culminating in the artwork Landscape being Decoded (2021), commissioned for the exhibition series Multiverse (October 22 – December 5, 2021) at the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MMCA), Korea (Seoul location). For this project, Kim built two LiDAR-driven structures called “Datascapes” that could each be inhabited by a single spectator at a time. Consisting of a semi-opaque dome on a wheeled frame, which covered the spectator’s head but left the rest of their body exposed, the Datascapes could be steered around the gallery space with the help of a docent. Inside the structure, the viewer could navigate based on a small screen showing an abstract visualization of the LiDAR readings, as well as surround-sound speakers that conveyed a spatial sense of sound when the sensors depicted moving objects. By removing the spectator’s normal visual senses and confining the sensory experience of space to a small screen and audio cues, Kim interrogated how human senses are simultaneously expanding and degenerating with the introduction of these new technological sensory prosthetics.2Hoonida Kim ( 후니다 킴) and Yeasul Shin (신예슬), Through the Looking Apparatus: Landscape being Decoded (Seoul: National Museum of Modern & Contemporary Art, Korea (국립현대미술관), 2021).

Hoonida Kim. Exterior view of Landscape being Decoded, exhibited at the MMCA, Seoul in 2021. Photo copyright and courtesy MMCA.

Human vision oscillates between closeness and distance, tracing the space in between subconsciously. The Datascape replaced this organic visual perception with an intense closeness, where screens, speakers, and sensors sit almost on top of the body. While we are used to the cinematic perspective of the camera (linking a set sequence of still images together through montage and usually establishing a voyeuristic point of view), here, the LiDAR instead provided a 360°, real-time map that could see the whole area at once from the sensor center-point. This panopticism was incommensurate with the frontal position of human vision, and it also cut out the other senses (touch, taste, sound, smell) that would ordinarily be used to understand the world with more depth and richness. This caused a disconnect from the normal bodily senses—yet at the same time—because the spectator was steering the structure based on the abstracted visual and audio cues, the Datascape collapsed human and machine perspectives together.3For spectatorial accounts, see Yeasul Shin (신예슬), “A Device that Perceives Us as We Feel The World,” in Multiverse (멀티버스), ed. Solhee Yoon (윤솔희), trans. Shinu Kim (킴산우) et al. (Seoul: National Museum of Modern & Contemporary Art, Korea (국립현대미술관), 2021), 198–208; Il-Ju Jeong (정일주), “Hoonida Kim (후니다 킴),” Public Art (퍼블릭아트) 185 (February 2022): 76–81. Although space is normally understood as pre-determined and based on environmental attributes, by entering into relational encounters with other spectators and objects as they traversed the gallery, the spectators of Landscape being Decoded formed the LiDAR map through their lived experience. As such, the artwork drew attention to the cartographic performance of human and machine together, moving through existing space, and at the same time, producing it.4For more on this, see Nanna Verhoeff, “Performative Cartography,” in Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012), 133–166.

Hoonida Kim. Interior view of Landscape being Decoded, exhibited at the MMCA, Seoul in 2021. Photo copyright and courtesy MMCA.

When combined with well-mapped roadways that have consistent surfacing (i.e., no potholes, clear demarcations between curb and path), LiDAR can enable a car’s computational system to make decisions without human input. Yet, because LiDAR works by bouncing light off surfaces, it depicts the world as surfaces and voids. The machinery of the autonomous vehicle cannot associate meaning with objects unless there is already a recognizable model in the database or map. Unclear or informal paths (shortcuts, non-human forms of passage, shared spaces) are ignored in favor of the map-index, regardless of what is actually happening in real space. The gallery destabilizes these pure routes since it has more fluid movement patterns than a street designed for cars, drawing into question the accuracy of the machine readings. In a recorded conversation about the work, the artist points out how the varying surfaces in the gallery created confusion for the device, where diffused reflections of human figures on shiny surfaces caused the Datascape to pinpoint “ghosts.” Kim also notes that LiDAR (and other sensors) struggle with subjective positioning between the device and the world. He explains that when the artwork’s sensor was in motion, it could not differentiate between things were still and those that were also in motion—everything was simply in motion.5Hoonida Kim (후니다킴), Oh Youngjin (오영진) and Yeasul Shin (신예슬), “Artist Talk |Hoonida Kim|Landscape being Decoded|MMCA Performing Arts 2021: Multiverse,” @mmcakorea, YouTube video, January 6, 2022, 46:26-46:57. In Landscape being Decoded the “vehicle” of the artwork conveyed other mobile entities as sound cues, and when both external objects and the LiDAR sensor were in motion, it created a resonating sound feedback for the viewer. Therefore, it was essential to occasionally stop so that the artwork could renew its understanding of the world from a stable position that differentiated itself from the surroundings. This effect also underscored the clashing perspectives of the machinic and the human for the viewer through the visceral effect of nausea when trying to reconcile the machine’s ontological experience with the human sensorium.6Shin, “A Device that Perceives,” 204–205.

Seoul LiDARs. Performance documentation of Volumetric Data Collector (2018) on Inwangsan Mountain, Seoul. Photo copyright Sookyun Yang.

The act of mapping is inherently fraught, since the desire to legibly document space requires choices that value certain sites over others, and also removes “irrelevant” information. The map is a story that guides the reader towards certain goals or trajectories, and maps are most often an institutional tool of governments (land registries) or corporations (Google maps) that hold more power than individual citizens. Because of this, urban maps often tell very generalized or sterilized stories about city spaces, and these maps have in turn influenced the design of real-world infrastructure. Technocratic city planning values efficiency and the unhindered flow of goods and information, which often aligns well with older traditions of urban planning that emphasize planned and top-down development. The work of urban planner Kevin Lynch is particularly relevant here, since his book The Image of the City (1960) posited that city residents develop unique mental maps (or images) of their cityscape through a variety of physical markers. These include paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks, which interrelate together for navigational purposes as well as situating social connections to the cityscape based on individual use patterns.7Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1990), 4–8. For Lynch, the easier a city is to “image,” the more beautiful or meaningful it can be for its citizens.8Lynch, Image of the City, 90. This idea resonates with the new technologies of self-driving cars, which similarly navigate the city based on mapped pathways, street edges, and destination landmarks, placing value on a planned and orderly cityscape. 

While clear navigation is an important part of city living, an overly planned environment can also feel stifling because it does not allow for individual agency. Kevin Lynch’s concepts should be read alongside Michel de Certeau’s proposition that citizens form attachments to their environment through tactical gestures that intervene in or forge personal trajectories and relationships with the planned environments of the city.9Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendell (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), i-xxi. These tensions are highlighted by the work of Seoul LiDARs (Sookyun Yang, Jinoon Choi, Hyun Parke), who joined Hoonida Kim in the first Zer01ne cohort. This team was formed specifically for the residency based on their project proposal. As the name implies, the group also took up LiDAR technology, but in this case developed a mobile backpack-mounted device that could be walked around the city strapped to a human body. Their project, Volumetric Data Collector (2018) connected directly to city space, drawing attention to areas of the city that are normally inaccessible to car-traffic. By detaching the sensor from the automobile and mounting it to a person, the group was able to hike up into forested mountain areas, tight alleyways, and riverside paths. These spaces are typically not recorded with the high resolution and precision required for Google Street View or self-driving cars, which means that they are often represented as voids or unknowns on maps. These are places that do not exist—or matter—for the purposes of machine navigation, but that play key roles in human engagement with the city, making space for de Certeau’s tactics and personal encounters with city space, other inhabitants, as well as contingent events that shape an individual’s understanding of the city.

Installation view of Volumetric Data Collector at Ars Electronica Festival 2018. Photo copyright Sookyun Yang.

Through the ephemeral performance of walking the city, Volumetric Data Collector visualized the point-cloud forms of LiDAR data alongside the lived experience of spaces that contain many layered histories and intentions. The work was presented in a twofold manner: one as the live performance where audience members were event attendees and unexpected passers-by on the street, and the other where they were exhibition viewers who could see a three-channel screen documentation installation comprised of 360° video, LiDAR point cloud, and traditional high-definition video. In the live format, data was streamed to a small screen mounted in the backpack, but not recorded due to the limited technical capacity of the backpack setup; performance recordings had to be made separately for the gallery installation.10Sookyun Yang (양숙현), interview by Melanie Wilmink, personal interview, February 17, 2023. This emphasizes the live and contingent quality of machine vision as something akin to human perception, turning data from something to be “collected” into something to be experienced. By displaying the data without saving or using it for automobile machine learning, the artwork turns data from a product into something uselessly ephemeral. 

Although it is impossible to ignore the colonizing impulse of technologically visualizing every space in the city, the performative nature of the artwork also draws attention to the inherent quality of mobility as something that is constantly changing and impossible to make concrete. By the time you’ve captured an image of a space and a time, everything has already moved on and dissipated. This becomes obvious when watching the documentation of the performance, where the three forms of mediation are shown side-by-side, with each perspective creating a different sensibility of the city. While the 360° video took on the viewpoint of the driver/vehicular body, the fish-eye image distortion was a constant reminder of the disconnect between human and machine vision. The LiDAR image refused the human entirely, abstracting city space into a large black void, filled with colored points that seem to collect into object-forms. This image was often difficult to understand, since the sensor takes 360° readings but re-organizes them into an overhead, distanced point of view for display purposes. The result made it hard to know where the center-point of the image is, and how it is related to the spaces depicted in the other two video formats. Finally, alongside these more technical perspectives, the more traditional single-channel video reads in a more narrative way, capturing the performer from behind and following their trajectory through recognizable city spaces. Viewers could also hear them talk with the rest of the crew and passers-by, explaining the technology and what they were doing.11Seoul LiDARs, “Seoul LiDARs,” @yangsookyun, Vimeo video, August 26, 2018. It feels the most human out of the three video formats, and alongside the other perspectives, it depicts a complicated and layered portrait of the city, underscoring the tension between the diversity of human experience and the singular image of the city proposed by vehicular technology.

Installation view of immersive artwork Roadscape MMXXX (2021) at Zer01ne Day 2021. Photo copyright IVAAIU City.

As these examples demonstrate, smart city mobility technology is clearly changing the human relationship to the vehicle object as well as its relational dynamics with the surrounding environment. Yet, just as the car led to paved, single-purpose streetscapes, new vehicular tools are also transforming the infrastructure of the city. Developed through the Zer01ne residency in 2021, IVAAIU City’s Roadscape MMXXX (2021) shifted away from the automotive machine towards the architectural structures that enable it. Emerging out of Donguk Agos Lee’s 2013 master’s thesis, the collective’s shifting membership (currently Donguk Agos Lee, Yangho Shin, Sung-Su Park, Hancheol So, and Hiroto Takeuchi) takes a multidisciplinary approach that brings together “Idea, Visual, Auditory, Architecture, Infrastructure, and Urbanism.” For their Zer01ne project, IVVAIU took inspiration from Hyundai’s 2021 acquisition of robotics company Boston Dynamics, re-imagining future roadways embedded with sensors and communicative devices for cars and humans, but also autonomous robots. This resulted in an immersive sculpture designed for humans, robots, and cars, where embedded sensors registered movement vibrations that were visualized in dynamic lighting and audio systems, infrastructure provided electric charging capacity for machine entities (vehicles and robots), differentiated pathways supported various user needs, and kinetic architecture responded to environmental conditions.12Mia Kyoungmi Lee (이경미), “An architectural space conceiving of a future city: IVAAIU City Roadscape MMXXX,” in ZER01NE ARCHIVE 2021 (Seoul: Zer01ne, 2021), 148–156.

The central core of the artwork Roadscape MMXXX (2021), installed at Zer01ne Day 2021. Photo copyright IVAAIU City.

IVAAIU founder and urban planner Donguk Agos Lee describes this new urban infrastructure as possessing a “tactile sense” that generates a kind of receptive skin for communicating between the infrastructure sub-surface and users.13Donguk Agos Lee (이동욱), interview by Melanie Wilmink, personal interview, July 25, 2023. Infrastructure is generally considered as the hidden internal workings of the city, but Roadscape MMXXX imagines more porosity between the internal and external, human and non-human, data and material. This comes in part from the implementation of mobility technology provided by Hyundai Motors, including Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing (DFOS)—which measures vibrations and data transfer changes within buried fiber optic cables in order to detect leaks, cracks, or material stress of infrastructure like bridges or tunnels. Inspiration for the sculpture was also drawn from other tools such as environmental sensors (for air quality or temperature), wireless charging systems (for vehicles and robotics), traffic monitoring devices, as well as drones and Spot (the famous Boston Dynamics robot-dog). Implemented in various ways within the sculpture, these tools were articulated through responsive lighting, sound, augmented reality, and kinetic architectural elements that placed the viewer into an embodied relational encounter with the infrastructure and vehicles that might comprise future urban environments.14IVAAIU City, “Roadscape MMXXX,” Website (Seoul: IVAAIU City), accessed August 4, 2023. Lee explains that the goal with this project was not necessarily to demonstrate accurate technologies, but rather to brainstorm possibilities for the future. Audiences were a key component of that process, and Roadscape MMXXX was designed to inspire audiences to think about infrastructure as something that they could discuss or even have agency over.15Lee, interview.

 When technology is new, it is easier to explore, experiment, and imagine new possibilities. As it becomes embedded into the physical world and our daily lives, the structures become much more unchangeable, and what is possible much more limited. Many of these tools of the “smart city” are owned and operated by private companies that are heavily motivated by commercial profit. This means that there is limited incentive to open black-box tools to outsiders who may use them to springboard competing ideas or find flaws in the product. Like many other corporate art-science residencies (such as Facebook’s FB AIR or Autodesk’s Pier 9), the Hyundai Zer01ne Residency partially leverages the “cool” factor of art as a form of communications or branding for their R&D; however, it does also seem that they have found genuine innovation in the engagement between artists, technology designers, and entrepreneurs. In a news interview, Zer01ne Playground founder and manager Young-jin Kwon (권영진) explains that the project was originally intended to attract high level IT talent who were more creative and coded “for fun,” but they found that actual creative innovation required a more interdisciplinary approach. To that end, they created a framework around “Art-Tech-Biz” and reached out to artists because they seemed the most disparate from an engineering skill set.16Kyu-yeol Lee (이규열), “I’ll open up a beautiful world where technology changes. Creative Talent Playground in Partnership (기술이 바꾸는 아름다운 세상 열게요. 예술가들과 손잡은 창의 인재 놀이터),” DBR Dong Business Review (동아비즈니스리뷰 사업자 정보) 357, no. 2 (November 2022). While Kwon admits to initially struggling with the different approaches and mindset of artistic production, they eventually found places where artistic concerns and Hyundai’s business model could intersect. This has led to artistic exhibitions and public display, but also the integration of artists’ ideas into Hyundai’s R&D systems, with artists like IVAAIU City being supported through the patenting process for several innovations that came out of their Zer01ne explorations.17Donguk Agos Lee (이동욱), Sung-Su Park (박성수), and Hancheol So (소한철), “Human-Robot Spatial Coexistence Seoul Workshop” (Zer01ne Offices Seoul, July 27, 2023). Hoonida Kim and Sookyun Yang of Seoul LiDARs have both also continued to participate in Zer01ne residencies over the years. Notably, Yang’s experience with Volumetric Data Collector led to her inclusion in some startup research around automated wheelchairs as a form of future mobility that is utilizing similar tools as self-driving cars for smaller, more maneuverable vehicles.18Lee, “I’ll open up a beautiful world.” Through projects like these, the residency becomes a unique way for artists to participate in the imaginative visioning of future urban environments, but also have practical impacts on built infrastructure. Yet at the same time—just as with any other corporate partnership—it may be that artistic agency and the ability to critique is somewhat limited by the relationship with a company that aims to generate profit from innovation. There is also the danger that artworks might be used in unintended ways or that artists are held up as propaganda to distract public criticism about the ethics and implementations of smart technologies in real-world situations.    

 Urban studies cultural theorists Christoph Lindner and Miriam Meissner underscore the great need for more diverse urban imaginaries, given that most urban visioning of modern cities is disproportionately done by corporate, governmental, and technological elites.19Christoph Lindner and Miriam Meissner, eds., The Routledge Companion to Urban Imaginaries (Milton Park & New York: Routledge, 2018), 1–22. As part of the Hyundai Zer01ne residency these artists are working within—and implicated by—those same hegemonic systems; yet, they are also able to de-construct and re-assemble urban mobility tools into something completely new, which enables them to think differently about applications and user engagements. By inviting audiences to participate in the embodied questioning of aesthetic experience, these artists open small cracks into the black-box systems of cutting-edge mobility tools and generate digital literacy. These are tactics, as per de Certeau, which enable individuals to find their own agency within systems that may seem overwhelmingly rigid. For de Certeau, even a gesture as minor as walking from place to place could act as a tactic that re-writes and re-organizes the narratives and meaning of urban space. In his most famous essay “Spatial Stories,” he explains that “…space is practiced place”—used, and lived in, and always being re-written.20de Certeau, Practice of Everyday Life, 117. In that same essay, he also points out that in the Greek language, metaphorai refers not just to the literary device, but literally to vehicles of mass transportation, like a bus. This intersection of stories and vehicles highlights the ways that technology and culture shape each other, becoming part of the ways that we use stories and space as a means to articulate ourselves as individual citizens with agency and agendas. So, in our world embedded with future mobility technology, what happens when vehicles gain the autonomy to move themselves around the city? The realistic answer is that they will likely not have actual autonomy, they will just move in predetermined, efficient ways to become more like infrastructure than humans writing stories. But the speculative gesture is that the machines themselves may begin to write stories, while inscribing appropriate and inappropriate uses into the cityscape for themselves, humans, and other beings. In this way, our future cities may be shared spaces where the human and non-human must balance different levels and expressions of agency, but where our stories will likely transform each other—along with the experience of the city. 

Notes

Notes
1 See Hyundai Motor Group, “Hyundai Motor Group Recruiting Startups for 2023 ZER01NE Accelerator First-Half Open Call,” Press Release (Seoul: Hyundai Motor Group, February 21, 2023).
2 Hoonida Kim ( 후니다 킴) and Yeasul Shin (신예슬), Through the Looking Apparatus: Landscape being Decoded (Seoul: National Museum of Modern & Contemporary Art, Korea (국립현대미술관), 2021).
3 For spectatorial accounts, see Yeasul Shin (신예슬), “A Device that Perceives Us as We Feel The World,” in Multiverse (멀티버스), ed. Solhee Yoon (윤솔희), trans. Shinu Kim (킴산우) et al. (Seoul: National Museum of Modern & Contemporary Art, Korea (국립현대미술관), 2021), 198–208; Il-Ju Jeong (정일주), “Hoonida Kim (후니다 킴),” Public Art (퍼블릭아트) 185 (February 2022): 76–81.
4 For more on this, see Nanna Verhoeff, “Performative Cartography,” in Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012), 133–166.
5 Hoonida Kim (후니다킴), Oh Youngjin (오영진) and Yeasul Shin (신예슬), “Artist Talk |Hoonida Kim|Landscape being Decoded|MMCA Performing Arts 2021: Multiverse,” @mmcakorea, YouTube video, January 6, 2022, 46:26-46:57.
6 Shin, “A Device that Perceives,” 204–205.
7 Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1990), 4–8.
8 Lynch, Image of the City, 90.
9 Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendell (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), i-xxi.
10 Sookyun Yang (양숙현), interview by Melanie Wilmink, personal interview, February 17, 2023.
11 Seoul LiDARs, “Seoul LiDARs,” @yangsookyun, Vimeo video, August 26, 2018.
12 Mia Kyoungmi Lee (이경미), “An architectural space conceiving of a future city: IVAAIU City Roadscape MMXXX,” in ZER01NE ARCHIVE 2021 (Seoul: Zer01ne, 2021), 148–156.
13 Donguk Agos Lee (이동욱), interview by Melanie Wilmink, personal interview, July 25, 2023.
14 IVAAIU City, “Roadscape MMXXX,” Website (Seoul: IVAAIU City), accessed August 4, 2023.
15 Lee, interview.
16 Kyu-yeol Lee (이규열), “I’ll open up a beautiful world where technology changes. Creative Talent Playground in Partnership (기술이 바꾸는 아름다운 세상 열게요. 예술가들과 손잡은 창의 인재 놀이터),” DBR Dong Business Review (동아비즈니스리뷰 사업자 정보) 357, no. 2 (November 2022).
17 Donguk Agos Lee (이동욱), Sung-Su Park (박성수), and Hancheol So (소한철), “Human-Robot Spatial Coexistence Seoul Workshop” (Zer01ne Offices Seoul, July 27, 2023).
18 Lee, “I’ll open up a beautiful world.”
19 Christoph Lindner and Miriam Meissner, eds., The Routledge Companion to Urban Imaginaries (Milton Park & New York: Routledge, 2018), 1–22.
20 de Certeau, Practice of Everyday Life, 117.
Wilmink, Melanie. "Vehicle for imagination: Art and Mobility Technology in South Korea." Mediapolis: A Journal of Cities and Culture 8, no. 3 (September 2023).
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